The Pug breed is classed as brachycephalic; problems associated with the condition include;
- Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome: a condition in brachycephalic breeds (those with a short nose and squashed face) where breathing is obstructed and can lead to reduced ability to exercise, or even severe respiratory distress.
- Skin inflammation/infection: brachycephalic breeds have a short nose and a normal amount of facial tissue. This means there is often excess skin around their face which leads to skin folds. The skin inside these folds can become sore and infections are prone to develop.
- Eye ulcers: ulcers are painful erosions on the surface of the eye. They are more common in brachycephalic breeds due to their conformation, as their eyes tend to be more bulbous.
The breed is also prone to:
- Patellar luxation
- Legg-Perthes disease
- Hemivertebrae which is a problem where dogs are born with spinal deformities
- Pug Dog Encephalitis which is a serious inflammatory brain disease
- Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye) which is a painful condition where the tear gland stops working properly
- Entropion¹ which is a painful eye condition where the eyelids roll inwards
Priority Kennel Club health schemes and testing:
- Respiratory function grading system
¹Y. Kim et al, 'Combination of Stades Forced Granulation Method and Hotz-Celsus Procedure for Treatment of Upper and Lower Eyelid Entropion-Trichiasis in Three Dogs', 2021, Journal of Veterinary Clinics